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  10.4.10 exercise10: Distinction between the congiuntivo prossimo and the congiuntivo presente

We have already said that the presente congiuntivo as well as the passato prossimo congiuntivo are used after verbs, conjunctions and idiomatic expressions which describe an emotional / subjective attitude towards the world because something is feared, desired, insecure. We have already said as well that the presente congiuntivo is used if the imagined actions / events are imagined in the same moment that they are happening (I am afraid that he is ill) and the passato congiuntivo is used if they are imagined after they have happened (I am afraid that he was ill). The same logic rules the use of the congiuntinvo and the trapassato di congiuntivo if the introductory verb is in a tense of the past.

In the sentences below from a logical point of view only one tense is possible, depending on whether the action must be described as finished in the moment of speaking or unfinished. Pay attention to the fact that the logic mentioned above is not only to apply in the case of the classical sequence of tenses, but with any kind of subordinate sentence.

  exercise 10: Distinction between the congiuntivo prossimo and the congiuntivo presente  
Sempre che i suoi compiti, può andare a giocare.
Under the condition that he has done his homework, he can go to play.
  Sono contento che me l' , adesso tutto è chiaro.
I am happy that he have said it, now everything is clear.
  Io non credo che , sono più di 200 chilometri.
I don' t think that he has already arrived, there are more than 200 km.
  È impossibile che già tutto, abbiamo comprati cinque chili.
I is impossible that we have already eaten erverything, we bought more than five kilo.
  Non è bene che tanto, non è buono per la tua salute.
It is not good that you smoke so much, that' s not good for your health.
  Io ero sicuro che lui la verità, ma aveva mentito.
I was sure that he had told the truth, but he had lied.
  Noi non credevamo che lui a Parigi, non parlava nemmeno francese.
We didn' t believe that he had gone to Paris, he didn' t even spoke French.

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