|13 infinite verb forms|
Before we go into the details let's see what is a infinite form.
infinite: to say, saying, said
finite: says, said
The infinite form informs us about the action, but doesn't inform us when this action / event has happened nor who has performed the action. The finite form informs us when this action has been performed (says = present, said = past) and who has performed the action (third person singular, he / she / it).
Obviously an infinite form alone doesn't make any sense because it just describes an action, but nothing more. There must be a finite verb which informs us who has performed the action and when.
Having finished the letter he submitted it.
Because the infinite form (having finished) doesn't inform us who has performed the action and when it has been performed we need a finite verb (submitted). In general, the infinite verb shares his subject with the finite verb and so we know that the third person singular masculine had finished the letter. The anchor on the timeline is the finite verb as well and so we know that in a period of time before he submitted the letter he had finished it.
In detail things are much more complicated as we are going to see in the next chapters.
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