8.2.5 the relative pronoun il quale, la quale, i quali, le quale

The construction "article + some form of quale" can be used in one special case as a relative pronoun. (We are still talking about a situation where there is no preposition. If there is a preposition the situation is completely different.) 'Che' can be substituted by "article + some form of quale" only in non restrictive relative clauses and this type of relative clauses is statistically seldom. (We remember: Non restrictive relative clause just add an extra information to the sentence, but doesn't change the meaning of a sentence, in other words, you can omit them and the meaning of the sentence remains the same.)
possible: Substitution in non restrictive relative clauses  
  correct: Maria, che legge molti libri, è professoressa in una scuola.
  Maria, who reads a lot of books, is a teacher at a school.
  correct: Maria, la quale legge molti libri, è professoressa in una scuola.
  Maria, who reads a lot of books, is a teacher at a school.  

But even in the case of a non restrictive relative clause the construction "article + some form of quale" can only be used it the relative pronoun is a nominative in the relative clause.

accuastive in the non restrictive relative clause  
  correct: Maria, che non vedo da anni, mi ha chiamato ieri.
wrong: Maria, la quale non vedo da anni, mi ha chiamato ieri.
Maria, who I haven' t see for years, called me yesterday.

For logical reasons the construction "article + some form of quale" can't refer to ideas because an idea is neutral, but the construction "article + some form of quale" is either feminine or masculine. "Article + some form of quale" can't be used either to reference a personal ponoun or an indefinite pronoun. Even if that is possible in theory because the construction "article + some form of quale" can match in gender and number with the personal pronoun it refers to, it is not possible in practice, in other words, it is wrong.

only cosa che can reference an idea  
  correct: Ho firmato il contratto, cosa che non è stata una buona idea.
wrong: Ho firmato il contratto, il (la / le / i / ?) quale (quali/ ?) non era una buona idea.
I signed the contract, what wasn' t a good idea.
  only che can reference a personal pronoun
  correct: Lui, che era veramente ricco, non dava mai qualche cosa ai poveri.
  wrong: Lui, il quale era veramente ricco, no dava mai qualche cosa ai poveri.  
  wrong: Lui, il cui era veramente ricco, no dava mai qualche cosa ai poveri.  
  He, who was really riche, never gave anything to the poor.  
  che as well as il quale can reference qualcuno, ognuno, ciascuno  
  correct: Qualcuno, che non voleva dire il suo nome, ti ha cercato.
  correct: Qualcuno, il quale non voleva dire il suo nome, ti ha cercato. (possible but seldom)
  wrong: Qualcuno, il cui non voleva dire il suo nome, ti ha cercato.
  Someone who did not want to say his name, has looked for you.
  correct: Tutto ciò che fa, lo fa bene.
  correct: Tutto quello che fa, lo fa bene.
  wrong: Tutto il quale che fa, lo fa bene.
  Everything he does he does well.

Summary: The construction "article + some form of quale" can be considered as irrelevant in this context. But: If there is a preposition, the situation changes dramatically.






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