13.6.1 exercise 1:Adjective or adverbial adjunct

The English present participle is a very strange construction from a grammatical point of view because it can be used as an adjective and as an adverb.

used as adjective => The laughing man crossed the street.
used as adverb => Laughing the man crossed the street.

The Italian gerundio, like the present participle, can substitute a subordinate sentence (Avendo capito ciò che voleva gli ho dato i soldi <=> Having understood what he wanted, I gave him the money) and can be used as well as an adverb (Fumando leggeva un libro <=> Smoking he read a book) but can never be used as an adjective.

Decide in the following sentences if the present participle is used as an adjective or as an adverb. Only in the case that the present participle is used as an adverb it can be translated with a gerundio.

adjective = adj.
adverbe = adv.

adjective or adverbe? adj. adv.  
  Coughing he entered the room. ?
  The coughing children has contracted a flu. ?
  Singing the made a night of it. ?
  Singing dulls were the innovation of this year toy fair. ?
  Whaving he boarded the aireplane. ?
  Children waving flags to greet the president is something we know only from reports about dictators. ?
 






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