13.5 Participio passato and past participle part 4

As we already mentioned the substitution of a subordinate clause by an infinitive form (infinitivo o gerundio) is only possible if the finite and the infinitive verb shares the same subject or, in some cases, if the directe / indirect object of the finite verb is the subject of the infinitive verb. In the case of the past participle it is different. The past participle can be used to substitute a relative clause and an if clause if his subject is the goal, but not the executor of the action described by the past participle. In this case, just any noun can be the subject of the past participle.

The car repaired we can go on holidays.
If the car is repaired we can go on holidays.

The car is the subject of the verb to repair, but not the executor. It is the goal of this action. And obviously there is no relationship to the subject of the finite verb, to go. Concerning the mood and the tense the past participle depend on the finite verb. If for instance the finite verb is a conditional, the past participle correspond to a simple past (actually to a simple past conjunctive, but that doesn't make normally any difference in English.)

The car repaired we could go on holidays.
If the car were repaired we could go on holidays.

  examples
Questa canzone cantata da lui, è bella.
  Se questa canzone è cantata da lui, è bella.
If this song is sung by him it is nice.
  Questa canzone cantata da lui, sarebbe bella.
  Se questa canzone fosse cantata da lui, sarebbe bella.
If this song were sung be him it would be nice.
  Questa canzone cantata da lui, sarebbe stata bella.
  Se questa canzone fosse stata cantata da lui, sarebbe stata bella.
If this song had been song by him, it would have been nice.




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