|10.1 Introduction congiuntivo|
a) indicative: They read the book.
a) subjunctive: I wish that you read the book.
b) indicative: He reads the book.
b) subjunctive: I wish that he read the book.
As you can see, in a) the indicative and the subjunctive are the same, read, and so there is no difference between the indicative and the subjunctive, but there is no doubt that it exists in English as well. There is difference between a real fact, something sure and something subjective, something that is feared, wished, desired, hoped, believed, etc.. This distinction seems to be something anchored in human brains, even in Persia this distinction is made. But it depends on the morphological material if that distinction can really be made in speech. You can read everywhere that the Italian subjunctive is a concept unknown in English, but that's not true. The difference is that the romance languages are able to realize this concept consequently because they have the morphological material to do that.
In English there are only some verbs and some forms where there is a difference between the indicative and the subjunctive.
=> The third person singular of all verbs have special form for the subjunctive in the present tense.
indicative: he / she / it comes :He comes.
subjunctive: he / she / it come : I suggest that he come.
=> the verb to be has a special form in all persons in the present
indicative: you are: You are here at nine o'clock.
subjunctive: you be: I recommend you be here at nine o'clock.
=> the verb to be has a special form in the simple past in the singular
indicativ: I was : I was there at ten o' clock.
subjunctive: I were: He requested that I were there at ten o' clock.
The subjunctive is used after verbs who express a personal attitude towards the world because something is desired, wished, feared and so on. In other words, together with verbs like advise, ask, beg, decide, decree, desire, dictate, insist, intend, order, propose, recommend, request, require, suggest, urge, and vote. The list is more or less the same in Italian.
I desire he read the book.
Voglio che legga il libro.
The congiuntivo is not only used after verbs, but also after conjunctions and idiomatic expressions which express a subjective attitude (that's why it is called subjuntivo in Spanish and subjunctive in French)
towards the world. It is used if something is insure, unreal, feared, desired, ordered, etc..
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