13.6.13 exercise13: causal / modal / temporale / if clauses

We have already said that the subordinate clauses mentioned above can be substituted by a gerundio (in italian, in english it would be a present participle). Translate these sentences with a gerundio.

causal clauses
Because he has no money he couldn't pay the rent.
 
  Because he hadn' t studied he didn't pass the exam.
 
  Because he didn' t tell anybody that he wanted to leave, everbody was surprised.

modal clause
  Calling by phone he resolved the problem.
 
  Mounting the right spare part he succeded in repairing the car.

  Doing the right thing at the right moment he could prevent the catastrophy.
 
  Learning one learns to learn.
 
  temporal clause
  After having drunken a coffee they left and drived on.
 
  Reading her letter I remembered a lot of things.
 
  After having learnt to learn one could learn everything.
 
  After having realized that they have duped him he went to the police.

if clause
  Having money live is easier.
 
  Working more and talking less one could finish earlier.
 





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