13.6.7 exercise 7: the English present participle used as an adjective and as an adverb

The English present participle can be used to abbreviate a subordinate clause (Having said what he wants to say, he left the room <=> After he had said what he wanted to say, he left the room), as an adverb (Drinking coffee they talked about god and eternity) and as an adjective (I see the reading woman). One may believe that the English present participle corresponds to the Italian participio presente, but that's not the case. First of all the Italian participio presente is an adjective and nothing more than an adjective and can't be used as an adverb or as an abbreviation of a subordinate clause. Besides that the Italian participio presente is not a productive system any more, it is not possible to form the participio presente of any verb. The existing Italian present participles like dormente, studiante, insegnante etc. are considered nowadays as simple adjectives.

An English present participle used as an adjective can be translated only with a relative clause.

Decide in the following sentences whether the present participle is used as an adjective or an adverb and translate the sentences.

gerundio = ger.
  relative clause = rec

exercise 7: Translate the following sentences
solution   ger. rec sentence    
  ?
Laughing they left the room.
  ?
He watched the children playing in the garden.
  ?
Dreaming no money is earned.
  ?
Dreaming dogs shouldn' t be awaken.
  ?
Working hard one not becomes rich in any case.
  ?
The working population decreases.
 








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