15.3.11 prepositions tranne / fuorché / eccetto

Tranne / fuorché and eccetto means except. Without che tranne-fuorché-eccetto are prepositions with che fuorché-eccetto che are conjunctions.

If the prepositions are combined with a pronoun the stressed pronouns are to be used: me / te / lui-lei / noi / voi / loro. (See also chapter seven.)

Lo ha fatto per me.
He did it for me.

Per te è uguale.
You do not care.

Tranne can be used only as a preposition and not as a conjunction. In the case of fuorche it is surprising that the che of the conjunction is already integrated but can be used anyway as a preposition.

prepositions
Except me he knows nobody here.
  Eccetto / fuorché / tranne me non conosce nessuno qui.
  Except his work he doesn' t care about anything.
  Eccetto / fuorché / tranne il suo lavoro non gli interessa nient'altro.
  He doesn' t care about anything except money.
  Non si interessa di niente, ecceto / fuorché / tranne di ciò che porta soldi.

We have seen already in the chapter congiuntivo, that certain conjunctions requires the subjunctive / congiuntivo. We have said that this is the case if the conjunctions expresses insecurity, irreality, intention, etc., if the they express a subjective attitude towards the world. Ecceto che / fuorché belong to this kind of conjunctions which requires a congiuntivo.

Fuorchè, eccetto che as conjunctions

conjunctions
Tutto si può dire degli Americani fuorché / (eccetto che) non siano patrioti.
  Everything can be said about americans except that they are not patriotic.
  Tutto si può dire della Repubblica Italiana, fuorchè / (eccetto che) abbia una tradizione di brogli elettorali.
  Everything can be said about the Italian Republique, except that it has a tradition of election fraud.

If the conjunction is followed by an infinitive some may believe that the infinitive in this case is a noun and the conjunction a preposition. But thats not true. The substantivated infinitive has no subject, but if there is a conjunction in front of the infinitive, he has a subject.

substantivated infinitive : without subject

a) Nuotare è bene per la salute. <=> Swimming is good for the health.

Nuotare is the subject of the sentence, but doesn' t have a subject itself.

Infinitive as a abbreviated subordinate clause: In general the infinitive shares the subject with the verb.

b) He can do everything but swimming. => The same person who can do everything can swimm as well.

In case a) the translation to English is to be done with a gerund, in case b) with a present participle.

conjunction
Non ha fatto niente fuorché parlare.
  Except talking he didn' t do anything.  

This fuorchè is a conjunction and not a preposition. If fuorchè were a preposition, then parlare would be a substantivated infinitive without a subject. But in this example it is obvious that parlare has a subject. The same person who did nothing spoke a lot. Parlare has a subject and is not a substantivated infinitive.






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